What is causing inflation? Economists point fingers at different culprits

There are various factors that can drive prices or inflation in an economy. Typically, inflation results from an increase in production costs https://www.topforexnews.org/investing/7-cheap-stocks-to-buy-before-the-market-realizes/ or an increase in demand for products and services. Many economists see inflation staying well above the Fed’s 2% target this year.

  1. After that, the APR for the unpaid balance and any new balance transfers will be a non-variable rate of 17.99%.
  2. Shelter, food, and energy are also the major categories that make up the Consumer Price Index, accounting for nearly 54% of the entire index.
  3. Companies are at risk if they’re unable to pass on the higher costs to consumers through higher prices.
  4. If a government cuts taxes, businesses may spend it on capital improvements, employee compensation, or new hiring.
  5. Excluding volatile energy and food prices, what is called “core” inflation rose 5.5% over the past year, the fastest such pace since 1991.
  6. Instead it points to the supply chain struggles and corporations independently driving up prices.

Since hitting a 40-year high of 9.1% in June 2022, inflation has slowed substantially. But after swift progress in the fall, price increases have become more volatile. Inflation itself is eating into household purchasing power and might force some consumers to shave back spending. Savers see their cash deposits eroded of purchasing power, while those who loaned money at lower fixed interest rates are stuck with less valuable loans until they mature.

Central banks like the Federal Reserve can lower the cost for banks to lend, which allows banks to lend more money to businesses and consumers. The increase in money available throughout the economy leads to more spending and demand for goods and services. Cost-push inflation is the decrease in the aggregate supply of goods and services stemming from an increase in the cost of production. An increase in the costs of raw materials or labor can contribute to demand-pull inflation.

As the price of goods and services rises, people may come to believe in a continuous rise in the future at a similar rate. Because of these shared expectations, workers may start to demand higher wages in order to anticipate rising prices and maintain their standard of living. Increased wages would result in higher costs for businesses, which may money honey pass those costs on to consumers. Higher wages also increase consumers’ disposable income, increasing the demand for goods that can push prices even higher. A wage-price spiral can then be set in place as one factor feeds back into the other and vice-versa. Just as expansionary fiscal policy can spur inflation, so too can loose monetary policy.

Inflation is typically expressed as the annual change in prices for a basket of goods and services. America is now two years into abnormally high inflation — and while the nation appears to be past the worst phase of the biggest spike in price increases in half a century, the road back to normal is a long and uncertain one. Below, Select spoke with Michael Gapen, head of U.S. economics research at Bank of America, about some of the reasons behind the record-high inflation rates.


Demand-pull inflation can be caused by strong consumer demand for a product or service. When there’s a surge in demand for a wide breadth of goods across an economy, their prices tend to increase. While this is not often a concern for short-term imbalances of supply and demand, sustained demand can reverberate in the economy and raise costs for other goods; the result is demand-pull inflation. A look through the data reveals a situation that arose from pandemic disruptions and the government’s response, was worsened by the war in Ukraine and is now cooling as supply problems clear up and the economy slows. But it also illustrates that U.S. inflation today is drastically different from the price increases that first appeared in 2021, driven by stubborn price increases for services like airfare and child care instead of by the cost of goods. Also, business owners can deliberately withhold supplies from the market, allowing prices to rise to a favorable level.

What Causes Inflation?

A company can raise prices simply because consumers are willing to pay the increased amount. Corporations also raise prices freely when the item for sale is something consumers need for everyday existence, such as oil and gas. However, it’s the demand from consumers that provide corporations with the leverage to raise prices. As prices continue to increase across a broad range of spending categories, many Americans are finding that their paychecks aren’t going as far as they used to. That’s probably because in June, the year-over-year inflation rate, as measured by the Consumer Price Index, was a whopping 9.1%, the highest it’s been in over four decades. Rising gasoline costs kept inflation elevated in February, underscoring that the road to more modest consumer price increases following a pandemic-induced spike may continue to be bumpy.

Measures of Inflation

The Fed has an inflation target of approximately 2% and adjusts monetary policy to combat inflation if prices rise too much or too quickly. Inflation can occur in nearly any product or service, including need-based expenses such as housing, food, medical care, and utilities, as well as want expenses, such as cosmetics, automobiles, and jewelry. Once inflation becomes prevalent throughout an economy, the expectation of further inflation becomes an overriding concern in the consciousness of consumers and businesses alike.

The cost of commodities such as wheat, corn and soybeans generally have come down amid increased global production. Elevated consumer price inflation will likely endure as long as companies struggle to keep up with consumers’ demand for goods and services. A recovering job market — employers added a record 6.4 million jobs last year — means that many Americans can continue to splurge on everything from lawn furniture to electronics. It wasn’t supposed to be this way — not with the coronavirus pandemic keeping people hunkered down at home and triggering a devastating recession beginning in March 2020. Barely more than a year ago, the Fed had forecast that consumer prices would end 2021 only about 1.8% higher than they were a year earlier, below even its annual 2% inflation target. Some companies reap the rewards of inflation if they can charge more for their products as a result of a surge in demand for their goods.

Supply shocks can lower an economy’s potential output, driving up prices. And the expectation of inflation can become a self-fulfilling cycle as workers and companies demand higher wages and set higher prices. There are many different factors affecting inflation, ranging from geopolitical conflict and changed consumer behaviors due to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. Some of the categories with the largest price increases — shelter, energy and food — also make up most of the Consumer Price Index, which all points to consumers having to spend more than usual on many of their everyday expenses. “A lot of service prices fell as consumers weren’t traveling on airlines and going to hotels. In the past 12 months, many of those prices have rebounded,” says Gapen.

And while goods prices generally have been softening, some costs rose unexpectedly last month. Other products continued their descent amid improved supply chains, with furniture and https://www.day-trading.info/penny-stocks-to-watch-for-march-2021/ bedding prices slipping 0.7% and appliances sliding 0.9%. There is no one answer, but like so much of macroeconomics it comes down to a mix of output, money, and expectations.

However, companies can also be hurt by inflation if it’s the result of a surge in production costs. Companies are at risk if they’re unable to pass on the higher costs to consumers through higher prices. If foreign competition, for example, is unaffected by the production cost increases, their prices wouldn’t need to rise. As a result, U.S. companies might have to eat the higher production costs, otherwise, risk losing customers to foreign-based companies. What Baker and other economists fear more than anything, however, is a wage-price spiral, which is when workers demand higher wages to pay for rising prices, and in response, businesses raise consumer prices to evenly match those costs.

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